Some species, such as peregrine falcons, have a higher percentage survival rate or higher reproductive success in urban areas than in rural areas. Also prefers some urban landscapes. A 2017 analysis of 529 bird species globally found that 66 were found only in urban areas, including only regional animals of various species, such as sheep owls and black and rhubarb combat tombs. . According to another review, different communities of bee species exist in cities around the world, and in some cases, more diverse and abundant populations of local bees live in cities than in nearby rural areas. Australia In Australia, researchers have recently identified 39 imp shrinkable “last chance” species, including trees, shrubs, tortoises, snails and even orchids, only in small parts of urban settlements.
For centuries, urbanization has resulted in bulk removal and fragmentation of natural vegetation. After the initial invasion, a complex mosaic of novels with original, non-native and invasive plants emerged, dominated by buildings, roads and other impermeable surfaces and contaminated with pollution.
Urban ecologists see this as a series of “filters” that make it difficult for many species to live in cities, especially with specific habitat requirements. Myla Aronson, an urban ecologist at Rutgers University, noted that so-called ericaceous plants, such as blueberries and rhododendrons, which need acidic soils, are disappearing from cities. One possible reason, he said, is that concrete has increased the alkalinity of the urban environment.
While urbanization poses a major threat to species and ecosystems, cities have an array of “traditionally diverse” unconventional habitats that could provide vital habitats or resources for indigenous biodiversity, according to a 2018 study by University of Melbourne scientists. Conservation Biology. These range from remnants of the original ecosystem such as forests, wetlands and meadows to traditional urban green spaces such as traditions, gardens and cemeteries, as well as golf courses, urban farms and community gardens. In addition, cities are investing in green structures to mitigate environmental damage, with wildlife increasingly occupying novelties including green roofs and creating wetlands and colonizing former brownfields and empty lots. And the positive role of cities play in promoting biodiversity, writes the authors of “can be promoted by deliberate creation,” Bioscience Article on “Biological desert disorder”.
In recent years, urban ecologists have created a new space in the field of conservation biology. A half-paper published in 2014 analyzed 110 cities in 54 biographic regions with extensive inventories of resident plant life and complete bird lists. According to the study, cities retained most of their original biodiversity. Aronson, the paper’s lead author, and his colleagues also found that in the cities they studied, plants and birds became very sparse, losing pre-density of 75 percent and 92 percent, respectively.
The second founding paper of urban conservation biology, published two years later, Australian Australian scientists wrote that cities contain up to 100 percent of the country’s endangered plants and animals, including the black-cockatoo of Carnaby. , Where large-scale agriculture has fragmented most of its habitats. In fact, they found that cities contained significantly more species per square kilometer than non-urban areas. “Cities in Australia are important for the protection of endangered species,” he wrote.
Scientists have described many ways in which urban areas can benefit regional biodiversity. For example, cities may be sheltered from pressures such as competition or predictions that the native species face in the surrounding landscape. Large prey densities in cities are linked to the success of many urban rappers, including the Cooper Hawks, Peregrine Falcons, Crested Goshacks, and Mississippi Kites. Cities also serve as stopover sites where migratory birds can rest and refuel. Large city parks such as Highbanks Park in Columbus, Ohio, provide critical stopover habitat for thrushes, warblers and other migratory songbirds.